Machine Learning

Stanford University

This course provides a broad introduction to machine learning and statistical pattern recognition. Topics include: supervised learning (generative/discriminative learning, parametric/non-parametric learning, neural networks, support vector machines); unsupervised learning (clustering, dimensionality reduction, kernel methods); learning theory (bias/variance tradeoffs; VC theory; large margins); reinforcement learning and adaptive control. The course will also discuss recent applications of machine learning, such as robotic control, data mining, autonomous navigation, bioinformatics, speech recognition, and text and web data processing. Prerequisites: Knowledge of basic computer science principles and skills, at a level sufficient to write a reasonably non-trivial computer program; familiarity with basic probability theory; familiarity with basic linear algebra.

Course Lectures
  • The Motivation & Applications of Machine Learning, The Logistics of the Class, The Definition of Machine Learning, The Overview of Supervised Learning, The Overview of Learning Theory, The Overview of Unsupervised Learning, The Overview of Reinforcement Learning

  • An Application of Supervised Learning - Autonomous Deriving, ALVINN, Linear Regression, Gradient Descent, Batch Gradient Descent, Stochastic Gradient Descent (Incremental Descent), Matrix Derivative Notation for Deriving Normal Equations, Derivation of Normal Equations

  • The Concept of Underfitting and Overfitting, The Concept of Parametric Algorithms and Non-parametric Algorithms, Locally Weighted Regression, The Probabilistic Interpretation of Linear Regression, The motivation of Logistic Regression, Logistic Regression, Perceptron

  • Newton's Method
    Andrew Ng

    Newton's Method, Exponential Family, Bernoulli Example, Gaussian Example, General Linear Models (GLMs), Multinomial Example, Softmax Regression

  • Discriminative Algorithms, Generative Algorithms, Gaussian Discriminant Analysis (GDA), GDA and Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, Laplace Smoothing

  • Multinomial Event Model, Non-linear Classifiers, Neural Network, Applications of Neural Network, Intuitions about Support Vector Machine (SVM), Notation for SVM, Functional and Geometric Margins

  • Optimal Margin Classifier, Lagrange Duality, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) Conditions, SVM Dual, The Concept of Kernels

  • Kernels
    Andrew Ng

    Kernels, Mercer's Theorem, Non-linear Decision Boundaries and Soft Margin SVM, Coordinate Ascent Algorithm, The Sequential Minimization Optimization (SMO) Algorithm, Applications of SVM

  • Bias/variance Tradeoff, Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM), The Union Bound, Hoeffding Inequality, Uniform Convergence - The Case of Finite H, Sample Complexity Bound, Error Bound, Uniform Convergence Theorem & Corollary

  • Uniform Convergence - The Case of Infinite H, The Concept of 'Shatter' and VC Dimension, SVM Example, Model Selection, Cross Validation, Feature Selection

  • Bayesian Statistics and Regularization, Online Learning, Advice for Applying Machine Learning Algorithms, Debugging/fixing Learning Algorithms, Diagnostics for Bias & Variance, Optimization Algorithm Diagnostics, Diagnostic Example - Autonomous Helicopter, Error Analysis, Getting Started on a Learning Problem

  • The Concept of Unsupervised Learning, K-means Clustering Algorithm, K-means Algorithm, Mixtures of Gaussians and the EM Algorithm, Jensen's Inequality, The EM Algorithm, Summary

  • Mixture of Gaussian, Mixture of Naive Bayes - Text clustering (EM Application), Factor Analysis, Restrictions on a Covariance Matrix, The Factor Analysis Model, EM for Factor Analysis

  • The Factor Analysis Model,0 EM for Factor Analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), PCA as a Dimensionality Reduction Algorithm, Applications of PCA, Face Recognition by Using PCA

  • Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) Implementation, Independent Component Analysis (ICA), The Application of ICA, Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF), ICA Algorithm, The Applications of ICA

  • Applications of Reinforcement Learning, Markov Decision Process (MDP), Defining Value & Policy Functions, Value Function, Optimal Value Function, Value Iteration, Policy Iteration

  • Generalization to Continuous States, Discretization & Curse of Dimensionality, Models/Simulators, Fitted Value Iteration, Finding Optimal Policy

  • State-action Rewards, Finite Horizon MDPs, The Concept of Dynamical Systems, Examples of Dynamical Models, Linear Quadratic Regulation (LQR), Linearizing a Non-Linear Model, Computing Rewards, Riccati Equation

  • Advice for Applying Machine Learning, Debugging Reinforcement Learning (RL) Algorithm, Linear Quadratic Regularization (LQR), Differential Dynamic Programming (DDP), Kalman Filter & Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Predict/update Steps of Kalman Filter, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG)

  • Partially Observable MDPs (POMDPs), Policy Search, Reinforce Algorithm, Pegasus Algorithm, Pegasus Policy Search, Applications of Reinforcement Learning