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### More on Orbitals and Electron Configuration

00:14:31Salman KhanMore intuition on orbitals. Touching on electron configuration.

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### Electron Configuration 1

00:10:04Salman KhanIntroduction to using the periodic table to determine electron configuration.

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### Groups of the Periodic Table

00:11:51Salman KhanProperties of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metals. Halogens and noble gases.

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### Periodic Table Trends: Ionization

00:12:13Salman KhanWhat an ion is. Using the periodic table to understand how difficult it is to ionize an atom.

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### Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds

00:13:22Salman KhanIntroduction to ionic, covalent, polar covalent and metallic bonds.

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### Molecular and Empirical Formulas

00:15:54Salman KhanIntroduction to molecular and empirical formulas. Calculating molecular mass.

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### The Mole and Avogadro's Number

00:09:44Salman KhanIntroduction to the idea of a mole as a number (vs. an animal).

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### Formula From Mass Composition

00:12:58Salman KhanFiguring out the empirical formula from a molecules mass composition.

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### Another Mass Composition Problem

00:06:41Salman KhanAnother exercise converting a mass composition to an empirical formula.

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### Stoichiometry: Limiting Reagent

00:15:04Salman KhanStoichiometry problem where we have a limiting reagent!

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### Ideal Gas Equation Example 1

00:10:08Salman KhanFiguring out the number of moles of gas we have using the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT.

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### Ideal Gas Equation Example 2

00:13:01Salman KhanPV/T is a constant. Figuring out the volume of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP).

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### Ideal Gas Equation Example 4

00:05:03Salman KhanFiguring out the molar mass of a mystery molecule at STP.

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### Partial Pressure

00:15:09Salman KhanFiguring out the partial pressures of various gases in a container.

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### Specific Heat, Heat of Fusion and Vaporization

00:14:49Salman KhanSpecifict heat and phase changes: Calculating how much heat is needed to convert 200g of ice at -10C to 110 degree steam.

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### Chilling Water Problem

00:11:23Salman KhanHow much ice at -10 degrees C is necessary to get 500g of water down to 0 degrees C?

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### Van Der Waals Forces

00:11:39Salman KhanVan Der Waals Forces: London Dispersion Forces, Dipole Attractions, and Hydrogen Bonds.

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### Covalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals

00:09:14Salman KhanCovalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals: Some of the strongest molecular structures.

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### Suspensions, Colloids and Solutions

00:13:57Salman KhanSuspensions, Colloids and Solutions. The difference between Molarity and Molality.

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### Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Supression

00:14:00Salman KhanRaising or lowering the boiling or freezing point of a solution by adding solute.

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### Introduction to Kinetics

00:15:27Salman KhanKinetics, activation energy, activated complex and catalysts.

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### Keq Intuition

00:12:52Salman KhanA probabilistic look at how molecules react to develop the intuition behind the equilibrium constant formula.

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### Keq Derivation Intuition

00:15:50Salman KhanA more concrete attempt at showing how the probabilities of molecules reacting is related to their concentration.

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### Heterogenous Equilibrium

00:09:22Salman KhanIgnoring the solution or the solid state molecules when calculating the equilibrium constant.

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### Le Chatelier's Principle

00:14:43Salman KhanLe Chatelier's Principle regarding the "stressing" of reactions in equilibrium.

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### Introduction to pH, pOH, and pKw

00:18:09Salman KhanAutoionization of water into hydronium and hydroxide ions. pH, pOH, and pKa.

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### pH, pOH of Strong Acids and Bases

00:14:49Salman KhanCalculating the pH or pOH of strong acids and bases.

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### pKa and pKb Relationship

00:14:33Salman KhanThe pKa and pKb relationship between conjugate acids and bases (both of which are weak).

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### Hydrogen Peroxide Correction

00:02:22Salman KhanCorrecting an error in the last video regarding hydrogen peroxide.

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### Exponential Decay Formula Proof

00:12:22Salman KhanShowing that N(t)=Ne^(-kt) describes the amount of a radioactive substance we have at time T. For students with background in Calculus. Not necessary for intro chemistry class.

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### Macrostates and Microstates

00:18:29Salman KhanThe difference between macrostates and microstates. Thermodynamic equilibrium.

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### Quasistatic and Reversible Processes

00:14:37Salman KhanUsing theoretically quasi-static and/or reversible processes to stay pretty much at equilibrium.

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### First Law of Thermodynamics/Internal Energy

00:17:40Salman KhanFirst law of thermodynamic and Internal Energy.

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### More on Internal Energy

00:13:45Salman KhanGetting more intuition of internal energy, heat, and work.

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### PV-diagrams and Expansion Work

00:15:24Salman KhanWhy work from expansion is the area under the curve of a PV-diagram.

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### Proof: U=(3/2)PV or U=(3/2)nRT

00:16:56Salman KhanConceptual proof that the internal energy of an ideal gas system is 3/2 PV.

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### Work Done by Isothermic Process

00:19:03Salman KhanIsothermic and Adiabatic processes. Calculating the work done by an isothermic process. Seeing that it is the same as the heat added.

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### Carnot Cycle and Carnot Engine

00:20:53Salman KhanIntroduction to the Carnot Cycle and Carnot Heat Engine.

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### Proof: Volume Ratios in a Carnot Cycle

00:17:08Salman KhanProof of the volume ratios in a Carnot Cycle.

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### Proof: S (or Entropy) is a Valid State Variable

00:15:38Salman KhanPrroof that S (or entropy) is a valid state variable.

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### Thermodynamic Entropy Definition Clarification

00:15:38Salman KhanClarifying that the thermodynamic definition of Entropy requires a reversible system.

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### Reconciling Thermodynamic and State Definitions of Entropy

00:28:26Salman KhanLong video explaining why entropy is a measure of the number of states a system can take on (mathy, but mind-blowing).

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### Maxwell's Demon

00:13:27Salman KhanMaxwell's Demon: A thought experiment that seems to defy the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.

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### Efficiency of a Carnot Engine

00:14:04Salman KhanDefinition of efficiency for a heat engine. Efficiency of a Carnot Engine.

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### Carnot Efficiency 2: Reversing the Cycle

00:14:01Salman KhanSeeing how we can scale and or reverse a Carnot Engine (to make a refrigerator).

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### Carnot Efficiency 3: Proving That it is the Most Efficient

00:12:17Salman KhanProving that a Carnot Engine is the most efficient engine.

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### Heat of Formation

00:12:35Salman KhanStandard heat of formation or standard enthalpy change of formation.

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### Hess's Law and Reaction Enthalpy Change

00:15:40Salman KhanUsing Hess's Law and standard heats of formation to determine the enthalpy change for reactions.

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### Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity

00:17:40Salman KhanIntuition behind why spontaneity is driven by enthalpy, entropy and temperature. Introduction to Gibbs free energy.

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### Gibbs Free Energy Example

00:09:57Salman KhanDetermining if a reaction is spontaneous by calculating the change in Gibbs Free Energy.

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### Rigorous Gibbs Free Energy/Spontaneity Relationship

00:13:56Salman KhanMore formal understanding of why a negative change in Gibbs Free Energy implies a spontaneous, irreversible reaction.

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### A Look at a Seductive But Wrong Gibbs/Spontaneity Proof

00:06:41Salman KhanA look at why the "proof" of the relation between changes in Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity is wrong in many textbooks.

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### Stoichiometry Example Problem 1

00:13:35Salman KhanFiguring grams of reactants and product produced from reaction of phosphorous and chlorine.

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### Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry

00:16:45Salman KhanEmpirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry.

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### Example of Finding Reactant Emperical Formula

00:17:41Salman KhanExample of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula.

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### Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution

00:09:46Salman KhanAnother Stoichiometry Example in a Solution.

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### Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition

00:10:34Salman KhanMolecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition. Example 2.9 from Kotz Chemistry book.

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### Spectrophotometry Introduction

00:13:06Salman KhanSpectrophotometry, Transmittance, Absorbance and the Beer-Lambert Law.

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### Spectrophotometry Example

00:12:42Salman KhanSpectrophotometry Example - Determining concentration based on absorbance.

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### Change of State Example

00:07:38Salman KhanSpecific Heat Capacity and Enthalpy of Vaporization example.

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