Introduction to evolution, variation in a population and natural selection.
Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction. Understanding gametes, zygotes, and haploid / diploid numbers.
Oxidation and reduction in cellular respiration. Reconciling the biology and chemistry definitions of oxidation and reduction.
More detail on the light reactions and photophorylation.
C-4 Photosynthesis: How some plants avoid photorespiration.
Role of phagocytes in innate or nonspecific immunity. Neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. MHC II.
Overview of types of immune responses. Difference between innate and adaptive immunity. Differences between humoral adaptive immunity and cell-mediated adaptive immunity.
How professional antigen presenting cells present parts of engulfed pathogens on MHC II complexes (major histocompatibility complexes).
How cytotoxic T cells get activated by MHC-I/antigen complexes and then proceed to kill infected cells.