Introduction to laws, some heat transfer parameters.
CONDUCTION – Fourier’s law and thermal conductivity.
Differential equation of heat conduction, boundary conditions and initial conditions.
Simple one dimensional steady state situations – plane wall, cylinder, sphere (simple and compex situations), concept of thermal resistance, concept of U, critical radius. Variable thermal conductivity (exercise).
Special one dimensional steady state situations – heat generation, pin fins. Other fin configurations (exercise).
Two dimensional steady state situations.
Transient conduction. Lumped capacitance model. One dimensional transient problems – analytical solutions. One dimensional Heisler charts. Product solutions.
Numerical methods in conduction. Steady state one dimensional and two dimensional problems. One dimensional transient problems – Explicit and implicit.
Laws of radiation, black body radiation, Planck’s law, Stefan Boltzman law, Wien’s Displacement law, Lambert cosine law.
Radiation exchange between black surfaces, shape factor.
Radiation exchange between gray surfaces – Radiosity-Irradiation method. Parallel plates.
Gas radiation.
FORCED CONVECTION. Concepts of fluid mechanics.
Differential equation of heat convection.
Laminar flow heat transfer in circular pipe – constant heat flux and constant wall temperature, thermal entrance region, Turbulent flow heat transfer in circular pipe, pipes of other cross sections.
Heat transfer in laminar flow and turbulent flow over a flat plate, Reynolds analogy.
Flow across a cylinder and sphere, flow across banks of tubes, impinging jets.
HEAT EXCHANGERS. Types of heat exchangers, LMTD approach – parallel, counter-flow, multi-pass and cross flow heat exchanger, NTU approach – parallel, counterflow, shell and tube, cross flow heat exchanger.
Condensation and Boiling. Dimensionless parameters, boiling modes, correlations, Forced convection boiling, laminar film condensation on a vertical plate, turbulent film condensation.
Mass Transfer. Analogy between heat and mass transfer, mass diffusion, Fick’s law of diffusion, boundary conditions, steady mass diffusion through a wall, transient mass diffusion, mass convection, limitations of heat and mass transfer analogy.