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Course

# Introduction to Linear Dynamical Systems

Stanford University

Introduction to applied linear algebra and linear dynamical systems, with applications to circuits, signal processing, communications, and control systems. Topics include: Least-squares aproximations of over-determined equations and least-norm solutions of underdetermined equations. Symmetric matrices, matrix norm and singular value decomposition. Eigenvalues, left and right eigenvectors, and dynamical interpretation. Matrix exponential, stability, and asymptotic behavior. Multi-input multi-output systems, impulse and step matrices; convolution and transfer matrix descriptions. Control, reachability, state transfer, and least-norm inputs. Observability and least-squares state estimation. Prerequisites: Exposure to linear algebra and matrices. You should have seen the following topics: matrices and vectors, (introductory) linear algebra; differential equations, Laplace transform, transfer functions. Exposure to topics such as control systems, circuits, signals and systems, or dynamics is not required, but can increase your appreciation.

Home > Mathematics > Algebra > Introduction to Linear Dynamical SystemsLectures:
• ### Overview of Linear Dynamical Systems

01:16:46Stephen Boyd

Overview Of Linear Dynamical Systems, Why Study Linear Dynamical Systems?, Examples Of Linear Dynamical Systems, Estimation/Filtering Example, Linear Functions And Examples

• ### Linear Functions (Continued)

01:05:52Stephen Boyd

Linear Functions (Continued), Interpretations Of Y=Ax, Linear Elastic Structure, Example, Total Force/Torque On Rigid Body Example, Linear Static Circuit Example, Illumination With Multiple Lamps Example, Cost Of Production Example, Network Traffic And Flow Example, Linearization And First Order Approximation Of Functions

• ### Linearization (Continued)

01:19:11Stephen Boyd

Linearization (Continued), Navigation By Range Measurement, Broad Categories Of Applications, Matrix Multiplication As Mixture Of Columns, Block Diagram Representation, Linear Algebra Review, Basis And Dimension, Nullspace Of A Matrix

• ### Nullspace of a Matrix (Continued)

01:14:08Stephen Boyd

Nullspace Of A Matrix(Continued), Range Of A Matrix, Inverse, Rank Of A Matrix, Conservation Of Dimension, 'Coding' Interpretation Of Rank, Application: Fast Matrix-Vector Multiplication, Change Of Coordinates, (Euclidian) Norm, Inner Product, Orthonormal Set Of Vectors

• ### Orthonormal Set of Vectors

01:15:14Stephen Boyd

Orthonormal Set Of Vectors, Geometric Interpretation, Gram-Schmidt Procedure, General Gram-Schmidt Procedure, Applications Of Gram-Schmidt Procedure, 'Full' QR Factorization, Orthogonal Decomposition Induced By A, Least-Squares

• ### Least-Squares

01:16:19Stephen Boyd

Least-Squares, Geometric Interpretation, Least-Squares (Approximate) Solution, Projection On R(A), Least-Squares Via QR Factorization, Least-Squares Estimation, Blue Property, Navigation From Range Measurements, Least-Squares Data Fitting

• ### Least-Squares Polynomial Fitting

01:15:46Stephen Boyd

Least-Squares Polynomial Fitting, Norm Of Optimal Residual Versus P, Least-Squares System Identification, Model Order Selection, Cross-Validation, Recursive Least-Squares, Multi-Objective Least-Squares

• ### Multi-Objective Least-Squares

01:15:58Stephen Boyd

Multi-Objective Least-Squares, Weighted-Sum Objective, Minimizing Weighted-Sum Objective, Regularized Least-Squares, Laplacian Regularization, Nonlinear Least-Squares (NLLS), Gauss-Newton Method, Gauss-Newton Example, Least-Norm Solutions Of Undetermined Equations

• ### Least-Norm Solution

01:09:02Stephen Boyd

Least-Norm Solution, Least-Norm Solution Via QR Factorization, Derivation Via Langrange Multipliers, Example: Transferring Mass Unit Distance, Relation To Regularized Least-Squares, General Norm Minimization With Equality Constraints, Autonomous Linear Dynamical Systems, Block Diagram

• ### Examples of Autonomous Linear Dynamical Systems

01:11:42

Examples Of Autonomous Linear Dynamical Systems, Finite-State Discrete-Time Markov Chain, Numerical Integration Of Continuous System, High Order Linear Dynamical Systems, Mechanical Systems, Linearization Near Equilibrium Point, Linearization Along Trajectory

• ### Solution via Laplace Transform and Matrix Exponential

01:08:55Stephen Boyd

Solution Via Laplace Transform And Matrix Exponential, Laplace Transform Solution Of X_^ = Ax, Harmonic Oscillator Example, Double Integrator Example, Characteristic Polynomial, Eigenvalues Of A And Poles Of Resolvent, Matrix Exponential, Time Transfer Property

• ### Time Transfer Property

01:13:37Stephen Boyd

Time Transfer Property, Piecewise Constant System, Qualitative Behavior Of X(T), Stability, Eigenvectors And Diagonalization, Scaling Interpretation, Dynamic Interpretation, Invariant Sets, Summary, Markov Chain (Example)

• ### Markov Chain (Example)

01:13:01Stephen Boyd

Markov Chain (Example), Diagonalization, Distinct Eigenvalues, Digaonalization And Left Eigenvectors, Modal Form, Diagonalization Examples, Stability Of Discrete-Time Systems, Jordan Canonical Form, Generalized Eigenvectors

• ### Jordan Canonical Form

01:17:42Stephen Boyd

Jordan Canonical Form, Generalized Modes, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, Proof Of C-H Theorem, Linear Dynamical Systems With Inputs & Outputs, Block Diagram, Transfer Matrix, Impulse Matrix, Step Matrix

• ### DC or Static Gain Matrix

01:09:01Stephen Boyd

DC Or Static Gain Matrix, Discretization With Piecewise Constant Inputs, Causality, Idea Of State, Change Of Coordinates, Z-Transform, Symmetric Matrices, Quadratic Forms, Matrix Nom, And SVD, Eigenvalues Of Symmetric Matrices, Interpretations Of Eigenvalues Of Symmetric Matrices, Example: RC Circuit

• ### RC Circuit (Example)

01:12:35Stephen Boyd

RC Circuit (Example), Quadratic Forms, Examples Of Quadratic Form, Inequalities For Quadratic Forms, Positive Semidefinite And Positive Definite Matrices, Matrix Inequalities, Ellipsoids, Gain Of A Matrix In A Direction, Matrix Norm, Properties Of Matrix Norm

• ### Gain of a Matrix in a Direction

01:16:52Stephen Boyd

Gain Of A Matrix In A Direction, Singular Value Decomposition, Interpretations, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) Applications, General Pseudo-Inverse, Pseudo-Inverse Via Regularization, Full SVD, Image Of Unit Ball Under Linear Transformation, SVD In Estimation/Inversion, Sensitivity Of Linear Equations To Data Error

• ### Sensitivity of Linear Equations to Data Error

01:15:14Stephen Boyd

Sensitivity Of Linear Equations To Data Error, Low Rank Approximations, Distance To Singularity, Application: Model Simplification, Controllability And State Transfer, State Transfer, Reachability, Reachability For Discrete-Time LDS

• ### Reachability

01:10:30Stephen Boyd

Reachability, Controllable System, Lest-Norm Input For Reachability, Minimum Energy Over Infinite Horizon, Continuous-Time Reachability, Impulsive Inputs, Least-Norm Input For Reachability

• ### Continuous-Time Reachability

01:09:25Stephen Boyd

Continuous-Time Reachability, General State Transfer, Observability And State Estimation, State Estimation Set Up, State Estimation Problem, Observability Matrix, Least-Squares Observers, Some Parting Thoughts..., Linear Algebra, Levels Of Understanding, What's Next